Having a multidisciplinary background in Management, History and Social Anthropology, I specialized in management, marketing, tourism life cycles, sport organizations, and nation building.
Thanks to long-term comparative cases of sport development in Hawaii, and in California, my publications demonstrate that native and local traditions contribute to identity building, to tourism development, and to urban growth.
In my monograph (2018), I argue that the traditional Hawaiian form of surfing, called he‘e nalu, turned into a global surf industry thanks to powerful policies and marketing strategies used by the public, nonprofit, and commercial sectors.
To support this theory, I conducted multi-sited fieldwork in California and Hawaii for 32 months from 2009 to 2017, and I recorded fifty (50) interviews with stakeholders. Findings are discussed in a paper on sport and city branding (Lemarie & Domann, 2020), as well as in a paper on nation building (Lemarie, 2016). Other publications include a monograph on sport tourism (Lemarie, 2018), and one book chapter on soft power (2017).
For the upcoming years, I will continue to write on sport and tourism development in coastal areas, and I will turn my attention to the stakeholder theory and to the global development of Olympic sports.
This monograph summarizes the first half of my PhD Dissertation. While the book title refers to the history of surfing, this work is a examination of nation building, sport and tourism management in Hawaii. It taps into the colonial history of the islands and the political shifts that lead Hawaiian elites and Westerners to promote native traditions, including he'e nalu (ancient Hawaiian surfing). The manuscript has been reviewed in the journal STAPS, by Alexandre Klein, postdoctoral fellow in History at Laval University. Read Book Review.
Keywords: Cultural History, colonization, traditions, tourism management, urban development, Hawaii, United States, surfing
BRANDING HUNTINGTON BEACH,
SURF CITY USA®
Journal of Society & Leiseure
Abstract: This study examines the branding of surfing culture for tourism purposes in Huntington Beach (HB), Surf City USA®, since the early 20th century. After discussing previous works on tourist area life-cycles, this research taps into the place branding theory to show surfing integration within the local growth strategy of the city. Results show that stakeholders in tourism development not only attract visitors but also residents and businesses, thus creating conflicts arising from the definition surfing images. This analysis is based on archival research of regional newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times, as well as on twenty semi-structured interviews taped between 2010 and 2018 with main stakeholders of surfing marketing and place branding. Stakeholders include elected local government officials, local surfers and residents, members of nonprofit sport organizations, board members of tourism businesses, as well as a global brand president of an action sports company.
Keywords: Place branding, tourism, Huntington Beach, lifestyle, surfing
Reference: Lemarie, J., Domann, V. (2020). Branding Huntington Beach, Surf City USA®: Visitors, Residents, and Businesses, Leisure & Society, 42 (forthcoming).
Abstract: In the 18th and 19th centuries in Hawaii, differences between native Hawaiians and Westerners perceiving the ocean are decisive to the understanding of waves by societies. While Hawaiians swim at ease in the surf zone, navigates stormy waters with their canoes and surfboards, Westerners express their mixed feeling. British, Americans, and French are both fearing and admiring breaking waves, thus highlighting their cultural differences with the natives. To explain such contrast, this work argues for a social history of perception. Then, it offers a theoretical framework aiming at understanding perceptive learning, and at explaining different kinds of human interactions with the environment. The consulted documents include logs of travelers making a stopover in Hawaii, diaries of permanent residents, and ancient Hawaiian collections.
Keywords: Perception, Socialization, Hawaii, Ocean, Surfing
Reference: Lemarie, J., Chamois, C. (2018). For a Social History of Perception, Journal of Nature & Recreation, 6, 39-51.
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DEBATING CULTURAL PERFORMANCES OF HAWAIIAN SURFING
Journal of the French Society of Scholars on Oceania
Abstract: Several years after the debate on the invention of traditions in the Pacific, this article highlights some work that reproduces or deconstructs inaccurate statements dealing with Hawaiian cultural performances. Through the case study of he'e nalu (Hawaiian surfing) in the 19th century, this analysis explains why anthropologists and historians have come to contradictory findings regarding its decline. Early works dealing with diaries of missionaries and sailors have argued for the near extinction of surfing, whereas a new school of thought tapping into Hawaiian sources and French literature has pinpointed its vivacity. To clarify controversy, this study examines American, British, French and Hawaiian primary sources and sheds light on the state of he'e nalu and its cultural performances in the 19th century.
Reference: Lemarie, J. (2016). Debating on Cultural Performances of Hawaiian Surfing in the 19th Century, Le Journal de la Société des Océanistes [Online], 142-143 | 2016.
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THE SPORTIZATION PROCESS OF SURFING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA & HAWAII
Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine
Abstract: From a critical viewpoint of sport management, this paper analyzes US imperialism and soft power in the Pacific through the case study of two nonporift sport organizations in Hawaii and in California. It shows how board members of one surf club in California convinced government officials, and members of the State senate to support competitive surf tours in the Pacific during the 1960s and the 1970s. Conversely, sport organizations in Hawaii were fighting political and entrepreneurial development of surfing, claiming that marketing their national traditions echoes to post-colonialism.
Reference: Lemarie, J. (2017). The Sportization Process of Surfing in Southern California & Hawaii. in Falaix, L. (ed.). Surfing in a Rip Current: A Scientific Odyssey (pp. 71-101). Bordeaux: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine.
THE CRITICAL SURF STUDIES READER
Writing Sample: Edited by Dexter Zavalza Hough-Snee and Alexander Sotelo Eastman, The Critical Surf Studies Reader is a substantial volume building on the growing field of surf studies. This work is organized in four sections including (1) Coloniality and Decolonization, (2) Race Ethnicity and identity, (3) Feminist Critical Geography and (4) Capitalism, Economics, and the commodification of Surf Culture. At first glance, this book seems excellent because some of the best-known authors in the field of surf studies are contributors. Douglas Booth, Clifton Evers, Scott Laderman, Patrick Moser, Isaiah Walker, Belinda Wheaton,
Andrew Warren and Chris Gibson, as well as many others write highly relevant and engaging pieces. Space has also been made to accommodate lesser-known authors and emerging scholars including Kevin Dawson, and Dina Gilio-Whitaker. In addition the back cover includes a concise contribution by well-regarded surf historian Matt Warshaw.
Reference: Lemarie, J. (2019) The Critical Surf Studies Reader, Tourism Geographies, DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2019.1583275
MEGA-EVENTS & URBAN IMAGE CONSTRUCTION
Writing Sample: Authored by Anne-Marie Broudehoux, Mega-events and Urban Image Construction: Beijing and Rio de Janeiro deals with urban image construction by elites and government
officials, and assesses the social impacts of city marketing prior to the hosting of sports mega-events, such as the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup. City images are examined through the dual cases of Beijing and Rio de Janeiro. As Broudehoux points out, Mega-events and Urban Image Construction: Beijing and Rio de
Janeiro is not a strict comparison of Beijing and Rio de Janeiro as such, but rather, an analysis that highlights similarities and differences as experienced by the two global cities.
Reference: Lemarie, J. (2019). Mega-Events and Urban Image Construction: Beijing and Rio de Janeiro. Tourism Geographies, 21(2), 358-360.
SURFING ABOUT MUSIC
Southern California Quarterly
Writing Sample: Studies published on surfing have increased significantly in the past decade and focus on numerous topics including lifestyle, subculture, commercialization, sport, professionalization, tourism, sustainability and global development. In this recent subfield of research, few scholars have investigated the relationships between surfing and music at the heart of their work. Timothy Cooley’s book Surfing about Music offers one of the first academic attempts on this subject. Unlike other studies that
are conducted by historians, sociologists, geographers and social anthropologists, Cooley’s study adopts an ethnomusicologist’s
viewpoint, and he draws on major authors from his field (such as Thomas Turino) and from other fields (such as Charles Sanders Peirce in philosophy).
Reference: Lemarie, J. (2016). Surfing about Music. Southern California Quarterly, 98(2), 244-247.
THE EMBODIED GLIDE & CARNAL SOCIOLOGY
Translation for the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine
Writing sample by the original author: In this foreword, I have been asked to reflect on my approach to understanding the practice of surfing and the place of the surfed wave, with respect to carnal sociology. As readers of this volume will be aware, carnal sociology emphasises the importance of the body to knowing. It is a fundamental challenge to the separation and privileging of the mind as the privileged way of gaining insight into the world, and by implication a re-balancing of rationalisation, reflection, and post-moment mental cognition as simply one competing source of onto-epistemological knowledge. Carnal sociology raises questions regarding how bodily knowledge can be harnessed and communicated, how it relates to more traditional and restricted knowledge fragments, and, how we can effectively frame, approach and realise research questions that foreground embodied engagement in the world. This work has clear implications for sports research, including surfing.
Reference: Anderson, J. (2017). Afterword: The Embodied Glide & Carnal Sociology. Trans. by Lemarie, J. & Falaix, J. in Falaix, L. (ed.), Surfing in a Rip Current: A Scientific Odyssey. Bordeaux, Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine, p. 367-376.
THE IMPACT OF SURFING ON THE BIRTH AND GROWTH OF THE LEISURE SOCIETY IN THE U.S.
Aquitaine Museum, Bordeaux
Writing Sample: The first development of the leisure society in the United States occurred during the period 1850-1960. In North America, as in Europe, leisure activities come from the realization that entertainment is necessary for renewing the work force. Above all, recreation ensure resting and rejuvenation.
Reference: Lemarie, J. (2019). Birth & Growth of the Leisure Society in the USA. in Callède, J.-P. (ed.). Exhibition Surf (pp. 39-41). Bordeaux: Musée d’Aquitaine.